Key references used to inform evidence-based content for this Oral Cancer Learning Hub.

Yakin, M. et al. (2018) Human papillomavirus and oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma: the essentials. Australian Dental Journal. DOI:

Hashibe, M. et al. (2007) Alcohol Drinking in Never Users of Tobacco, Cigarette Smoking in Never Drinkers, and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: Pooled Analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. DOI:

Maasland, D. et al. (2014). Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and the risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study. BMC Cancer. DOI:

Petersen, P. E. (2009) Oral cancer prevention and control – The approach of the World Health Organization. Oral Oncology. DOI:

World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2018) Continuous Update Project Expert Report: Diet, nutrition, physical activity and cancers of the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Available at:

Australian Dental Association (2019) Policy Statement 6.10 – Oral Cancer. Available at:

Awojobi, O. et al. (2015) Why don't dentists talk to patients about oral cancer? Nature. DOI:

Marino, R. et al. (2017) Oral cancer screening practices of oral health professionals in Australia. BMC Oral Health. DOI:

Webster, J.D. et al. (2019) Missed opportunities for oral cancer screening in Australia. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine. DOI:

Brocklehurst, P. et al. (2013) Screening programmes for the early detection and prevention of oral cancer (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DOI:

Department of Health and Human Services, State Government of Victoria (2020) Victorian action plan to prevent oral disease 2020–30. Available at: /

Australian Dental Association (2017) The Australian Schedule of Dental Services and Glossary. Available at:

The Australian Government (Cancer Australia) and Cancer Council Victoria (2016) Optimal care pathway for people with head and neck cancers. Available at:

Speight, P. M. & Farthing, P. M. (2018) The pathology of oral cancer. British Dental Journal. DOI:

All lesion images provided by Michael McCullough, Professor of Oral Medicine at the Melbourne Dental School, the University of Melbourne.

Baxi S. S. et al. (2012) Sharing a diagnosis of HPV-related head and neck cancer: the emotions, the confusion, and what patients want to know. Head & Neck. DOI:

Data collated and analysed by the Victorian Department of Health. Source:

Cancer Council Victoria (2019) Cancer in Victoria: Statistics and Trends 2018. Available at:

Last updated: April 2023